behaviorism was the view that psychology should scientifically study behavior without reference to:,

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Behaviorism was the view that psychology should scientifically study behavior without reference to the mind. Behaviorists rejected any talk of consciousness, thoughts, and feelings as unscientific speculation about unobservable phenomena. They argued that one could only be an objective scientist by limiting oneself to what can be observed—namely, overt human behavior. This approach became ascendant in psychology from the 1920s to the 1960s. It was popular largely because it seemed logical and scientific, but also for its promise of providing a way to manage society by manipulating people’s behavior without reference to their thoughts or feelings. Behaviorism dominated academic psychology for much of this period, with important contributions made both within behavioral science (e.g., Ivan Pavlov) and outside it (e.g., B.F Skinner). But as criticism mounted against such an impersonal view of what makes humans tick—and especially following embarrassing revelations about how American psychologists helped manipulate public opinion during World War II by tapping into unconscious fears—behaviorists were gradually replaced by cognitive scientists who argued that mental processes are just as

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